1Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Roma 1, Rome, Italy
2Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Received: 01 Aug 2014 – Discussion started: 28 Nov 2014
Abstract. Many volcanic systems are partially or entirely submerged, implying that vents may open underwater. The effect of submerged vents on probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA) for tephra fallout has always been neglected, introducing potentially uncontrolled biases. We present a strategy to quantify the effect of submerged vents on PVHA for tephra fallout, based on a simplified empirical model in which the efficiency of tephra production decreases as a function of the water depth above the eruptive vent. The method is then applied to Campi Flegrei caldera, comparing its results to those of two reference end-member models and their statistical mixing.
Revised: 11 Feb 2015 – Accepted: 11 Feb 2015 – Published: 04 Mar 2015
Tonini, R., Sandri, L., Costa, A., and Selva, J.: Brief Communication: The effect of submerged vents on probabilistic hazard assessment for tephra fallout, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 409-415, doi:10.5194/nhess-15-409-2015, 2015.