Tsunami vulnerability of buildings and people in South Java – field observations after the July 2006 Java tsunami S. Reese1, W. J. Cousins2, W. L. Power2, N. G. Palmer2, I. G. Tejakusuma3, and S. Nugrahadi3 1National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Wellington, New Zealand 2Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS), Lower Hutt, New Zealand 3Indonesian Agency for the Assessment and Application of Disaster Mitigation Technology (BPPT), Jakarta, Indonesia
Abstract. A team of scientists from New Zealand and Indonesia undertook a
reconnaissance mission to the South Java area affected by the tsunami of
17 July 2006. The team used GPS-based surveying equipment to measure
ground profiles and inundation depths along 17 transects across affected
areas near the port city of Cilacap and the resort town of Pangandaran. The
purpose of the work was to acquire data for calibration of models used to
estimate tsunami inundations, casualty rates and damage levels. Additional
information was gathered from interviews with eyewitnesses.
The degree of damage observed was diverse, being primarily dependant on
water depth and the building construction type. Water depths were typically
2 to 4 m where housing was seriously damaged. Damage levels ranged from
total for older brick houses, to about 50% for newer buildings with
rudimentary reinforced-concrete beams and columns, to 5–20% for
engineered residential houses and multi-storey hotels with heavier RC
columns. "Punchout" of weak brick walls was widespread. Despite various
natural warning signs very few people were alerted to the impending tsunami.
Hence, the death toll was significant, with average death and injury rates
both being about 10% of the people exposed, for water depths of about 3 m.
Citation: Reese, S., Cousins, W. J., Power, W. L., Palmer, N. G., Tejakusuma, I. G., and Nugrahadi, S.: Tsunami vulnerability of buildings and people in South Java – field observations after the July 2006 Java tsunami, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 7, 573-589, doi:10.5194/nhess-7-573-2007, 2007.