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Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 15, issue 4 | Copyright
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 789-803, 2015
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-15-789-2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 10 Apr 2015

Research article | 10 Apr 2015

Open space suitability analysis for emergency shelter after an earthquake

J. Anhorn3,1 and B. Khazai2,3 J. Anhorn and B. Khazai
  • 1South Asia Institute (SAI), Heidelberg University, INF 330, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
  • 2Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hertzstrasse 16, 76187, Karlsruhe, Germany
  • 3HEiKA – Heidelberg Karlsruhe Research Partnership, Heidelberg University and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Heidelberg and Karlsruhe, Germany

Abstract. In an emergency situation shelter space is crucial for people affected by natural hazards. Emergency planners in disaster relief and mass care can greatly benefit from a sound methodology that identifies suitable shelter areas and sites where shelter services need to be improved. A methodology to rank suitability of open spaces for contingency planning and placement of shelter in the immediate aftermath of a disaster is introduced. The Open Space Suitability Index uses the combination of two different measures: a qualitative evaluation criterion for the suitability and manageability of open spaces to be used as shelter sites and another quantitative criterion using a capacitated accessibility analysis based on network analysis. For the qualitative assessment implementation issues, environmental considerations and basic utility supply are the main categories to rank candidate shelter sites. A geographic information system is used to reveal spatial patterns of shelter demand. Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed on the basis of an earthquake hazard case study in the Kathmandu Metropolitan City. According to the results, out of 410 open spaces under investigation, 12.2% have to be considered not suitable (Category D and E) while 10.7% are Category A and 17.6% are Category B. Almost two-thirds (59.55%) are fairly suitable (Category C).

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This paper presents an indicator method to rank public open spaces for emergency shelter using weighted qualitative indicators and a capacitated accessibility measure. The method is exemplified in a case study from Kathmandu, Nepal, using the mid-Nepal earthquake scenario with Mw 8.0, which would lead to huge building damages. The results indicate that Kathmandu faces a lack of suitable open spaces for immediate shelter inside the ring-road perimeter given the standards used in this study.
This paper presents an indicator method to rank public open spaces for emergency shelter using...
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