Journal cover Journal topic
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2351-2355, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-16-2351-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Brief communication
10 Nov 2016
Brief communication: Extended chronology of the Cordón Caulle volcanic eruption beyond 2011 reveals toxic impacts
Werner T. Flueck 1CONICET, Argentine National Park Administration, Bariloche, 8400, Argentina
2Swiss TPH, Universität Basel, Basel, Switzerland
Abstract. Aside of immediate impacts, the 2011 Puyehue–Cordón Caulle volcano (PCC) eruption also caused persisting chemical impacts. By 2012, toxicity resulted in overt dental fluorosis in deer, with bone fluoride increasing > 38-fold to 5175 ppm. Sheep, horses and cattle also succumbed to fluorosis. Due to eolian redeposition of tephra, exposure of ruminants continued, bone fluoride reached 10 396 ppm, and by 2014 skeletal fluorosis was found. Nonskeletal fluorosis resulted in reduced wool growth and major losses among periparturient cattle. Peculiarities of digestive processes make ruminants susceptible to fluoride-containing tephra, which averaged 548 ppm from PCC. Moreover, recent volcanic eruptions causing fluorosis could be aggravated by local iodine deficiency, which increases the incidence and harshness of fluorosis, and deficiency of selenium, which, among other things, also results in secondary deficiency of iodine. Notwithstanding, several measures are available to livestock producers to minimize chemical impacts of fluoride.

Citation: Flueck, W. T.: Brief communication: Extended chronology of the Cordón Caulle volcanic eruption beyond 2011 reveals toxic impacts, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2351-2355, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-16-2351-2016, 2016.
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Short summary
The 2011 Puyehue volcano eruption also caused persisting chemical impacts. By 2012, dental fluorosis in deer appeared, with bone fluoride increasing > 38-fold. Livestock also succumbed to fluorosis. As exposure of ruminants continued, bone fluoride reached 10 396 ppm, by 2014 caused skeletal fluorosis, reduced wool growth, and caused major losses among periparturient cattle. Peculiarities of digestive processes make ruminants susceptible to fluoride-containing ashes.
The 2011 Puyehue volcano eruption also caused persisting chemical impacts. By 2012, dental...
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