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Volume 18, issue 5 | Copyright

Special issue: Landslide early warning systems: monitoring systems, rainfall...

Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1427-1450, 2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 25 May 2018

Research article | 25 May 2018

The Norwegian forecasting and warning service for rainfall- and snowmelt-induced landslides

Ingeborg K. Krøgli1, Graziella Devoli1,2, Hervé Colleuille1, Søren Boje1, Monica Sund1, and Inger Karin Engen1 Ingeborg K. Krøgli et al.
  • 1Department of Hydrology, Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE), Oslo, 0368, Norway
  • 2Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, 0316, Norway

Abstract. The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) have run a national flood forecasting and warning service since 1989. In 2009, the directorate was given the responsibility of also initiating a national forecasting service for rainfall-induced landslides. Both services are part of a political effort to improve flood and landslide risk prevention. The Landslide Forecasting and Warning Service was officially launched in 2013 and is developed as a joint initiative across public agencies between NVE, the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (MET), the Norwegian Public Road Administration (NPRA) and the Norwegian Rail Administration (Bane NOR). The main goal of the service is to reduce economic and human losses caused by landslides. The service performs daily a national landslide hazard assessment describing the expected awareness level at a regional level (i.e. for a county and/or group of municipalities). The service is operative 7 days a week throughout the year. Assessments and updates are published at the warning portal at least twice a day, for the three coming days. The service delivers continuous updates on the current situation and future development to national and regional stakeholders and to the general public. The service is run in close cooperation with the flood forecasting service. Both services are based on the five pillars: automatic hydrological and meteorological stations, landslide and flood historical database, hydro-meteorological forecasting models, thresholds or return periods, and a trained group of forecasters. The main components of the service are herein described. A recent evaluation, conducted on the 4 years of operation, shows a rate of over 95% correct daily assessments. In addition positive feedbacks have been received from users through a questionnaire. The capability of the service to forecast landslides by following the hydro-meteorological conditions is illustrated by an example from autumn 2017. The case shows how the landslide service has developed into a well-functioning system providing useful information, effectively and on time.

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Short summary
Norway has, since 2013, an operative nation-wide landslide forecasting and early warning system for shallow landslides. The early warning system uses thresholds for soil moisture and water supply from rain and snowmelt to issue warnings to the public and relevant authorities when the risk for landslide hazard is present. The warnings are regional and are issued at Colours are used to symbolize the hazard level.
Norway has, since 2013, an operative nation-wide landslide forecasting and early warning system...