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Volume 18, issue 1 | Copyright
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 185-205, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-18-185-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 16 Jan 2018

Research article | 16 Jan 2018

Satellite-based emergency mapping using optical imagery: experience and reflections from the 2015 Nepal earthquakes

Jack G. Williams1, Nick J. Rosser1, Mark E. Kincey1, Jessica Benjamin1, Katie J. Oven1, Alexander L. Densmore1, David G. Milledge1, Tom R. Robinson1, Colm A. Jordan2, and Tom A. Dijkstra2,3 Jack G. Williams et al.
  • 1Institute of Hazard, Risk and Resilience and Department of Geography, Durham University, Lower Mountjoy, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK
  • 2British Geological Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, Environmental Science Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG, UK
  • 3School of Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering, Loughborough University, Ashby Road, Loughborough, LE11 3TU, UK

Abstract. Landslides triggered by large earthquakes in mountainous regions contribute significantly to overall earthquake losses and pose a major secondary hazard that can persist for months or years. While scientific investigations of coseismic landsliding are increasingly common, there is no protocol for rapid (hours-to-days) humanitarian-facing landslide assessment and no published recognition of what is possible and what is useful to compile immediately after the event. Drawing on the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal, we consider how quickly a landslide assessment based upon manual satellite-based emergency mapping (SEM) can be realistically achieved and review the decisions taken by analysts to ascertain the timeliness and type of useful information that can be generated. We find that, at present, many forms of landslide assessment are too slow to generate relative to the speed of a humanitarian response, despite increasingly rapid access to high-quality imagery. Importantly, the value of information on landslides evolves rapidly as a disaster response develops, so identifying the purpose, timescales, and end users of a post-earthquake landslide assessment is essential to inform the approach taken. It is clear that discussions are needed on the form and timing of landslide assessments, and how best to present and share this information, before rather than after an earthquake strikes. In this paper, we share the lessons learned from the Gorkha earthquake, with the aim of informing the approach taken by scientists to understand the evolving landslide hazard in future events and the expectations of the humanitarian community involved in disaster response.

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Short summary
There is currently no protocol for rapid humanitarian-facing landslide assessment and no published recognition of what is possible and useful to compile immediately after a triggering event. Drawing on the 2015 Gorkha earthquake (Nepal), we consider how quickly a landslide assessment based upon manual satellite-based emergency mapping (SEM) can be realistically achieved and review the decisions taken by analysts to ascertain the timeliness and type of useful information that can be generated.
There is currently no protocol for rapid humanitarian-facing landslide assessment and no...
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